Patients with low testosterone levels could have decreased libido, erections and stamina. They could also suffer from reduced bone mass, muscle mass, and physical capacity. Intramuscular testosterone injection is an efficient and safe way to help patients with testosterone deficiency. The following video shows how to self-administer the testosterone injection.
In Sweden from 1998 through 2014, mortality and the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes declined substantially among persons with diabetes, although fatal outcomes declined less among those with type 2 diabetes than among controls.
Patients with type 1 diabetes had roughly 40% greater reduction in cardiovascular outcomes than controls, and patients with type 2 diabetes had roughly 20% greater reduction than controls. Reductions in fatal outcomes were similar in patients with type 1 diabetes and controls, whereas patients with type 2 diabetes had smaller reductions in fatal outcomes than controls.
Among patients with type 1 diabetes who were receiving insulin, the proportion of patients who achieved a glycated hemoglobin level lower than 7.0% with no severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis was larger in the group that received sotagliflozin than in the placebo group. However, the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis was higher in the sotagliflozin group.
Trulicity is a GLP-1 receptor agonist. It increases intracellular cAMP in beta cells leading to glucose-dependent insulin release. It also decreases glucagon secretion and slows gastric emptying.
Trulicity is supplied as a solution for subcutaneous injection. The recommended initiating dose is 0.75 mg once weekly. The maximum recommended dose is 1.5 mg once weekly. Administered once weekly, any time of day, with or without food. Trulicity should be injected subcutaneously in the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm.
Victoza was approved by FDA in January 2010. It is an injectable form of GLP-1 analog. It improves diabetes via several mechanisms; insulin sensitivity, appetite suppression, reduced gastrointestinal motility, lower glucagon and higher insulin release in response to food.
A nice video summary by NEJM regarding cardiovascular safety of semaglutide. Semaglutide was approved by the FDA in December 2017. It is a weekly GLP-1 agonist with hyperglycemic and weight loss benefits while safe from cardiac standpoint.
FreeStyle Libre is the first glucometer without the use of fingersticks for measurements or calibration. It received the FDA approval in September 2017. Below is a nice video on how to apply the sensor and use the scanner.
Goldberg variations is one of the very few pieces that JS Bach published (1741) in his lifetime. It was composed for a two-manual harpsichord. It's beautifully performed here by Helmuth Walcha, a Bach scholar and legend.