Diabetes

Risk factors control is also important in type 1 diabetes

Risk factors control is also important in type 1 diabetes


This major observational study shows that the tight control of risk factors is associated with much lower rates of cardiovascular events and total mortality in patient with type 1 diabetes. Such factors are hyperglycemia, systolic blood pressure, protein in the urine, and the “bad” cholesterol (A1c, sBP, McAlb, LDLc).

This association has already been seen in adults with type 2 diabetes. For a practitioner, this study calls for a tight control of the above risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes as in those with type 2. A group of 30,000 DM1 individuals were followed for about 10 years

GT

Red raspberries for breakfast

Red raspberries for breakfast

This simple study shows that frozen red raspberries in quantities of 125-250 mg (1-2 cups), when taken with a typical high-carb breakfast, improve insulin resistance in adults with prediabetes. Although these results would need to be validated, having red raspberries for breakfast sounds just right.

GT

Oral insulin 338 is effective but expensive

Oral insulin 338 is effective but expensive

This short phase 2 clinical trial shows that the oral insulin 338 improves fasting plasma glucose similar to the long-acting insulin glargine. Hypoglycemia rates are also similar. However, further studies of the oral insulin 338 are halted due to its need for high doses and cost. A group of 50 patients were followed for 8 weeks. The quest for the first oral insulin, nonetheless, continues.

GT

Addition of Ozempic to a SGLT2 inhibitor improves hyperglycemia and bodyweight

Addition of Ozempic to a SGLT2 inhibitor improves hyperglycemia and bodyweight

Clinical experience has consistently shown that addition of a GLP-1 agonist to a SGLT2 inhibitor improves hyperglycemia in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Current study SUSTAIN 9 proves just that for semaglutide, a once weekly injectable GLP-1 agonist.

Addition of semaglutide reduced A1c by 1.4% and bodyweight by 8.4 lbs. Results were statistically significant. As expected, the GI side effects were more pronounced with semaglutide. About 72% of patients were also taking metformin and 13% sulfonylurea.

A group of 300 participants were followed for 30 weeks.

GT

Jardiance lowers blood pressure significantly in African American adults

Jardiance lowers blood pressure significantly in African American adults

Jardiance shows positive outcomes in African American adults. It reduces the A1c by 0.8%, body weight by 2.7 pounds and more interestingly the systolic blood pressure by 8 mmHg, similar to a standard blood pressure medication.

A group of 150 African American participants were randomized to receive Jardiance 25 mg daily or placebo for 6-months.

The SGLT2 inhibitor would be a great choice for patients with concomitant hyperglycemia and systolic hypertension.

GT

Newer diabetes medications also help prevent heart and kidney disease

Newer diabetes medications also help prevent heart and kidney disease

About 80,000 diabetes patients were analyzed from 8 clinical trials.

Authors found that GLP1 agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors prevented cardiovascular events (MACE) equally by 14% in those with established CVD. However, both classes of medications did not appear to be effective in reducing MACE in adults with diabetes but without established CVD.

SGLT2 inhibitors showed superior results compared to GLP1 agonists in regard to preventing hospitalizations for heart failure or severe kidney disease progression, such as end-stage-renal disease or death.

If cost, side effects, drug interactions and contraindications allow, diabetes patients would greatly benefit from these therapies on three fronts; glucose control, heart and kidney disease prevention.

GT

2018 Cholesterol Guidelines: Diabetes Mellitus

2018 Cholesterol Guidelines: Diabetes Mellitus

For diabetes patients, practical recommendations would be:

  • Start moderate-intensity statin therapy if:

    • Young, age 20-39, with microvascular complications or long-standing DM.

    • Older, age 40-75, without major risk factors.

  • Start high-intensity statin ± ezetimibe if the following factors are present with the goal of reducing LDLc ≥50%:

    • Multiple risk factors

    • ASCVD 10YR ≥20%

  • For adults >75, clinician-patient discussion is needed if statin were to be started or continued.

GT

Second line diabetes medication on the risk of CVD

Second line diabetes medication on the risk of CVD

Among patients with type 2 diabetes initiating second-line diabetes therapy, the short-term cardiovascular outcomes of GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT-2 inhibitors, and DPP-4 inhibitors were similar.

Higher cardiovascular risk was associated with use of sulfonylureas or basal insulin compared with newer drug classes.

Clinicians may consider prescribing GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT-2 inhibitors, or DPP-4 inhibitors more routinely after metformin rather than sulfonylureas or basal insulin.

JAMA

From diabetes to hyponatremia to osteoporosis

From diabetes to hyponatremia to osteoporosis

Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for bone fragility fracture secondary to multiple mechanisms.

Hyperglycemia can induce true dilutional hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is associated with gait instability, osteoporosis, and increased falls and bone fractures, and studies suggest that compromised bone quality with hyponatremia may be independent of plasma osmolality.

Analyses of this research support the hypothesis that hyponatremia is an additional risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fracture among patients with diabetes mellitus.

JES

Statins improve diabetic retinopathy?

Statins improve diabetic retinopathy?

This major observational study suggests that statins reduce the risk of diabetic neuropathy, diabetic foot ulcers, and more importantly the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Risk reduction ranges from 10% to 45%. This could be due to statin-induced decreased microvascular inflammation. About 38,000 patients were followed for 7.5 years.

GT

Artificial pancreas in the hospital

Artificial pancreas in the hospital

The automated insulin pump has already shown great results in type 1 diabetes in an ambulatory setting. This study shows that it is as useful in type 2 diabetes patients treated in the hospital. Patients utilizing the “artificial pancreas” had better glycemic control, without an increased risk of hypoglycemia. I anticipate that closed-loop, automated insulin devices will become the “standard of care” for hospitalized patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the future.

GT

Coffee and Diabetes

Coffee and Diabetes

About 4,000 adults ages 20-70 were followed for 6 years. Pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes rates were lower in those who consumed coffee vs. non-consumers. Risk reduction on average was 30%. Nutritional benefits of coffee on insulin resistance are mounting, as shown in this article.

GT

Novel Approach: Verapamil for Type 1 Diabetes

Novel Approach: Verapamil for Type 1 Diabetes

Old drug, new approach. Verapamil has classically been used to treat hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias. This randomized phase 2 clinical trial shows a novel use of the drug by improving pancreatic beta cell function in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Verapamil helped patients use lower doses of insulin as well as experiencing less hypoglycemia. These are exciting and promising results.

GT

Mortality and CVD in patients with diabetes type 1 and type 2

Mortality and CVD in patients with diabetes type 1 and type 2

In Sweden from 1998 through 2014, mortality and the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes declined substantially among persons with diabetes, although fatal outcomes declined less among those with type 2 diabetes than among controls. 

Patients with type 1 diabetes had roughly 40% greater reduction in cardiovascular outcomes than controls, and patients with type 2 diabetes had roughly 20% greater reduction than controls. Reductions in fatal outcomes were similar in patients with type 1 diabetes and controls, whereas patients with type 2 diabetes had smaller reductions in fatal outcomes than controls.

NEJM

Sotagliflozin effects on diabetes type 1

Sotagliflozin effects on diabetes type 1

Among patients with type 1 diabetes who were receiving insulin, the proportion of patients who achieved a glycated hemoglobin level lower than 7.0% with no severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis was larger in the group that received sotagliflozin than in the placebo group. However, the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis was higher in the sotagliflozin group.

NEJM

Early heart disease in diabetes and prediabetes

Early heart disease in diabetes and prediabetes

The study finds that the longer the duration of diabetes and prediabetes in early adulthood, the higher the risk of progressive subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiac pump dysfunction, in both phases of contractility and relaxation. About 3,600 patients of age 18-30 were followed for 25 years. This is yet another reason to screen and intervene aggressively young individuals for both prediabetes and diabetes.

GT

Differentiating LADA, type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Differentiating LADA, type 1 and type 2 diabetes

It is not always easy to distinguish LADA from type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Common parameters utilized are BMI, age, family history, HLA-typing, clinical presentation, glucose variability and severity, insulin production, C-peptide levels, as well as autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), pancreatic islet cells (ICA) or insulin (IAA).

The article shows that other inflammatory markers could also be useful in differentiating the diagnoses. Such markers are; adiponectin, soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 (sTNFR2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), hs-CRP, and total leukocyte number. More research is needed on how to incorporate the additional tests in clinical practice.

GT

A possible new drug for diabetes and obesity (PTP1b inhibitor)

A possible new drug for diabetes and obesity (PTP1b inhibitor)

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1b) was first discovered in 1988. It is a counter-regulator to insulin and leptin signaling pathways. Given current endemic of insulin resistance via obesity and type 2 diabetes, it is natural to search for drugs that improve insulin and leptin sensitivities. PTP1b suppression is one of those options.

Here is a phase 2 clinical trial on an antisense inhibition of PTP1b (IONIS-PTP-1BRx). Results are promising but not profound: A1c and body weight dropped by 0.7% and 6 lbs in 27 to 36 weeks. No major adverse events were seen. A clearer picture of the drug will emerge in the future trials. At the same time the search for the other perfect PTP1b continues.

GT

The semi-automated insulin pump performs well

The semi-automated insulin pump performs well

The study reveals that the hybrid closed loop device, MiniMed 670g, helps in reducing A1c by 0.75% compared to standard insulin pumps. For those transitioning to it, carbohydrate to insulin ratio needs to be adjusted immediately. This semi-automated system, differently called semi-artificial pancreas, is a significant advancement in the field of type 1 diabetes. The device was approved by FDA in September 2016.

GT