Primary hyperaldosteronism in obesity

In this retrospective study, investigators analyzed a group of 400 adults with hypertension due to primary hyperaldosteronism. The study found that obese patients had smaller aldosterone-producing tumors than lower BMI counterparts. It appears that obese individuals had more aggressive – higher functioning – tumors in spite of their smaller size. Adrenalectomy led to a similar clinical outcome – blood pressure improvement – in patients with or without high BMI. Although these results need to be confirmed, it would be useful for endocrinologists, radiologists, and surgeons to be aware of this phenotype.

GT

Also see:

Aldosteronism

Hypertension

Obesity


Surgery

Retrospective

September 2019

Background

Obese patients may have unrecognized primary aldosteronism due to high rates of concomitant hypertension. We hypothesized that obesity impacts the diagnosis and management of patients with primary aldosteronism.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective analysis of all primary aldosteronism patients (n = 418) who underwent adrenal vein sampling (1997–2017).

Patients were classified by body mass index as obese (body mass index ≥35) or nonobese (body mass index <35) and diagnostic evaluation was compared between groups.

  • Within the operative cohort (n = 285), primary outcomes were changes in both blood pressure and antihypertensive medications after adrenalectomy.

  • Secondary outcome was clinical resolution by Primary Aldosteronism Surgery Outcomes criteria.

Results

35% of patients were obese. Obese patients were more likely to be male (67.8% vs 56.1%, P = .025), somewhat younger (P < .012), and require more preoperative antihypertensive medications (6.7 vs 5.7, P = .04) than nonobese patients.

Obese patients had lesser rates of radiologic evidence of adrenal tumors (P = .038) despite similar rates of lateralization on adrenal vein sampling.

In the operative subset, obese patients had somewhat smaller tumors on final pathology (1.1 vs 1.5 cm, P = .014) but similar rates of complete and partial clinical resolution (P = 1.000).

Conclusion

Obese primary aldosteronism patients have lesser rates of localization by imaging, likely due to smaller tumor size, however, experience similar benefit from adrenalectomy.