The study finds that the longer the duration of diabetes and prediabetes in early adulthood, the higher the risk of progressive subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiac pump dysfunction, in both phases of contractility and relaxation. About 3,600 patients of age 18-30 were followed for 25 years. This is yet another reason to screen and intervene aggressively young individuals for both prediabetes and diabetes.
To determine whether the duration of diabetes and duration of prediabetes estimated during a 25-year period in early adulthood are each independently associated with coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) and abnormalities in left ventricular structure and function later in life.
Participants were 3,628 white and black adults aged 18–30 years without diabetes or pre-diabetes at baseline (1985–1986) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Durations of diabetes and prediabetes were estimated based on their identification at examinations 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years later. CAC was identified by computed tomography at years 15, 20, and 25. Left ventricular structure and function were measured via echocardiogram at year 25.
Of the 3,628 individuals, 12.7% and 53.8% developed diabetes and prediabetes, respectively; average duration was 10.7 years and 9.5 years. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other cardiovascular risk factors, and mutual adjustment for each other, the hazard ratio for the presence of CAC was 1.15 (p<0.05) and 1.07 (p<0.05) times higher for each 5-year-longer duration of diabetes and prediabetes, respectively.
Diabetes and prediabetes duration were associated with worse subclinical systolic function (longitudinal strain, Ptrend < 0.001 for both) and early diastolic relaxation (e′, Ptrend 0.004 and 0.002, respectively).
Duration of diabetes was also associated with a higher diastolic filling pressure (E-to-e′ ratio, Ptrend 0.001).
Durations of diabetes and prediabetes during adulthood are both independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in middle age.