This major prospective study finds that coffee consumption reduces all cause mortality by 12% in men and 7% in women. About 500,000 participants were followed for 16 years.
More specifically, coffee intake seems to lower gastrointestinal death in men by 60%. In women however, the digestive, circulatory, and cerebrovascular disease mortality are reduced by 40%, 22% and 30% respectively, while raising the risk death by 30% from an ovarian cancer.
The study also uncovers the antiinflammatory effect of coffee on hepatic-insulin resistance axis, as documented by lower levels of AlkPhos, ALT, AST, GGT, CRP, Lp(a) and A1c in high consumers.
Unless side effects are present, coffee consumption promotes a good anti-inflammatory health.
An of Int Medicine
The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear.
To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.
Prospective cohort study.
10 European countries.
521,330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition).
Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800).
During a mean 16.4 years follow-up, 41,693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88, p< 0.001; women: HR, 0.93, p=0.009).
Inverse associations were also observed for digestive disease mortality for men (HR, 0.41, p < 0.001) and women (HR, 0.60, p < 0.001).
Among women, there was a statistically significant inverse association of coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78, p < 0.001) and cerebrovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.70, p = 0.002) and,
A positive association with ovarian cancer mortality (HR, 1.31, p = 0.015).
In the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort, higher coffee consumption was associated with: Lower serum AlkPhos; ALT; AST; GGT; and, in women, CRP, lipoprotein(a), and A1c levels.
Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once.
Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country.